- Instructor: Dr. David Bard-Schwarz
- Office: MU 104
- E-mail: david.schwarz@unt.edu
- MUTH 2500-001 Theory IV Spring 2018| MU 287 MW 08:00 to 08:50; grader; me
- MUTH 2500-003 Theory IV Spring 2018| MU 321 MW 09:00 to 09:50; grader: Sean Bresemann
- MUTH 2500-005 Theory IV Spring 2018| MU 287 MW 12:00 to 12:50; grader: Ali Montazeri
## For music tutoring in our materials write to bryansstevens@gmail.com

## For help with our materials for the 12 o'clock class, email Ali at AliMontazerighahjaverestani@my.unt.edu

## For help with our materials for the 8 o'clock and 9 o'clock classes, email Sean at SeanBresemann@my.unt.edu

## For help with technical issues relating to the website, its assets, and / or accessibility, email Steven Heffner at StevenHeffner@my.unt.edu

In this course we will study 20th and 21st Century music. We will begin with a discussion of late 19th-Century / early 20th Century pieces that are right on the threshold between chromaticism and atonal musical languages. Then we will move into the course proper, consisting of three sections: 1) atonal (exploring atonal pitch-class set theory); 2) serial (exploring 12-tone techniques); and 3) hybrid techniques (quasi tonal / quasi atonal).

Coming to class regularly and punctually is very important. You will be dropped from the course after three unexcused absences; I take roll at the top of the hour; three latenesses = one unexcused absence. You will be excused from class due to natural disasters, transportation problems beyond your control, medical emergencies (concerning you or members of your immediate family), and official UNT musical activities.

A proven case of plagiarism on a paper will result in an F for the course.

Please dress with a reasonable degree of decorum appropriate for university life.

Grades will be determined as follows:

- Quizzes (announced and unannounced) = 20%
- Midterm: (atonality) = 40%
- Final Exam: (serialism) = 40%

Student Perception of Teaching (SPOT) is a requirement for all organized classes at UNT. This short survey will be made available to you at the end of the semester, providing you a chance to comment on how this class is taught. I am very interested in the feedback I get from students, as I work to continually improve my teaching. I consider the SETE to be an important part of your participation in this class.

- 01.17.2018
Why atonality? (some answers): 1) progress forward from the chromaticism of the late 19th century, 2) the discovery of the unconscious (Freud and others), 3) abstraction in the visual arts (Kandinsky and others), 4) the modern city (industrialization), 5) quantum physics (Einstein).

Pieces that have crossed the Threshold between Tonality and Atonality

Schoenberg, Opus 11 YOUTUBE | Schoenberg, Opus 11: pdf

- 01.22.2018
Straus,

*Introduction to Post-Tonal Theory*Chapter 1: pdfatonal pitch-class set theory: ordered pitch intervals, unordered pitch intervals, ordered pitch-class intervals, unordered pitch-class intervals

The row of Berg's Lyric Suite. How do the four types of intervals help us understand the pitch and pitch-class structures of this row?

Ordered and Unordered Pitch-class intervals: jpg

In addition to class, we will have a guest lecture by Prof. Jack Boss from 3:30 to 4:30 in MU 258. There may be a quiz on the material covered in Prof. Boss' lecture so be sure not to miss it. If you have a previous requirement, the lecture will be videotaped.

- 01.24.2018
There is no regular class today; I need to miss for medical reasons; instead, please watch the video below for a lesson. That will do four things: 1) review opi, upi, opci, upci, 2) an "impossible object" from Webern's Opus 10 no. 1, 3) segmentation, and 4)

*Klangfarbenmelodie*Video lesson for today: mov (434 MB)

Pitch and Pitch-Class notations: pdf

- 01.29.2018
Straus, Chapter 2. Read the materials on transposition (pp. 38-44). Pay particular attention to Example 2.6 and how the material transposes in pitch-class and pitch space (if it does).

Do you hear (or see) transposition in Webern, Pieces for String Quartet Opus 5 no. IV: pdf? If so, does it map onto pitch as well as pitch-class space?

- 01.31.2018
atonal pitch-class set theory: how we hear and process music: phenomenology and segmentation

- 02.05.2018
Class Cancelled: make-up forthcoming

- 02.07.2018
normal form See the material in Straus, Chapter 2 (see 01.29.2018).

- 02.12.2018
inversion of pc sets; read Straus, Chapter 2, pp. 44-52.

Work on the trichords in the upper strings at the beginning of Webern, Piece for String Quartet Opus 5, no. 3: pdf.

- 02.14.2018
Read about prime form in Straus, Chapter 2, pp. 52-59.

- 02.19.2018
atonal pitch-class set theory: subsets and supersets: pdf

Straus, Chapter 3: pdf (read pp. 96-98 on subsets and supersets)

- 02.21.2018
Read Straus, Chapter 3, pp. 107-110 on atonal voice-leading. Pay particular attention to the example on page 107.

Try this out on the trichords in sixteenth notes in Webern, Wie bin ich froh: pdf

- 02.26.2018
- 02.28.2018
### Midterm Exam on Atonality

- 03.05.2018
The 12-tone row and the four basic permutations: Prime (P), Retrograde (R), Inversion (I), and Retrograde-Inversion (RI)

a

**12-tone row**is all 12 pitch classes arranged in an order whose ordered pitch class intervals remain constant. There are 12! rows in the universe or 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 x7 x6 x5 x4 x3 x2 x1 or 479,001,600. An example of a well-known 12-tone row is the row of Berg's*Lyric Suite*for String Quartet (1925-1927). It is <5409728136te>. You always put the pitch-class numbers of a row in angled brackets; angled brackets mean "ordered series."Take a look at the row of Berg's

*Lyric Suite*:the ordered pitch-class interval or opci between pc 5 and pc 4 is 11; the opci between 4 and 0 is 8; between 0 and 9 is 3; between 9 and 7 is 10; between 7 and 2 is 7; between 2 and 8 is 6; between 8 and 1 is 5; between 1 and 3 is 2; between 3 and 6 is 3; between 6 and t is 4; and between t and e is 1

There are four basic things you can do with a row:

- P stands for "prime" and you write out the row left-to-right. You name prime forms of the row after the
*first*pitch-class in the row. So the row above is P5. - R stands for "retrograde" and you write out the row backwards right-to-left. You name retrograde forms of the row after the
*last*pitch-class in the row. So the retrograde of the row above is R5 or. The reason for this naming is that the retrograde is the retrograde **of**a prime or (R)(P) or (R) of (P). - I stands for "inversion" and you write out the inversions of each pitch-class of the prime form of the row, just like we did in atonal pitch-class set theory. so the inversion of the P5 row is I7 or <78035t4e9621>
- RI stands for "retrograde inversion" and that is the inversion backwards or right-to-left: so the retrograde inversion of I7 is RI7 or <1269e4t53087>

- P stands for "prime" and you write out the row left-to-right. You name prime forms of the row after the
- 03.07.2018
Do you want to know what the matrix is?

Berg wrote his music by transposing all prime forms of the row down a sheet of staff paper; he then labelled all the P forms and all the R forms. On another sheet of staff paper, he wrote the inversion of the row and all transpositions of that permutation; he then labelled all the I forms and all the RI forms. By the way, I like to refer to a single

*row*and things that we do with that row as*permutations*. It's not wrong to call all rows and permutations of rows*rows*but I like to try and remain rigorous that for each*row*there are 48*permutations*Schoenberg realized that you could combine Berg's two sheets of paper into a single square, with P running left-to-right; R running right-to-left; I running top-to-bottom and RI running bottom-to-top. That square is the matrix and you can fill each "box" with note names and / or pitch-class numbers. We're using pitch-class numbers.

There are computer programs that will generate a matrix for you; you enter a row, hit "enter" and voila--you get a matrix. I used one of those programs to make the matrix below. However, I think you learn an invaluable lesson by making one yourself. So let's do that. Making a Matrix: pdf

Here is a 12-tone row generator in case you'd like to practice with randomly-generated rows.

- 03.19.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Connecting a 12-tone row and its matrix to a piece of music

## the essential concepts:

- order numbers of a row
- the difference between order numbers and pitch-class numbers
- the calculation of intervals from one order to the next in terms of ordered pitch-class intervals
- permutation contiguity: how one permutation follows one another (overlap or no overlap)

Here is an introduction to serial analysis: pdf

- 03.21.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

- 03.26.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Webern Opus 21, II (matrix): pdf

Webern, Symphony Opus 21, II: mp3

The "theme" of the work

- 03.28.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Webern Opus 21, II: Variation I

- 04.02.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Webern Opus 21, II: Variation II

- 04.04.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Webern Opus 21, II: Variation III

- 04.09.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Webern Opus 21, II: Variation IV

- 04.11.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Dallapiccola quaderno musicale di annalibera (complete): pdf

Work on no. 3 for today

- 04.16.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Simple Canon, Mirror Canon, Crab Canon

- 04.18.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

- 04.23.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

- 04.25.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

Berg's 12-tone rows: the

*Violin Concerto*and the*Lyric Suite* - 04.30.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

- 05.02.2018
## See Video in the Player Above

- 05.07.2018
Final Exam on Serialism for 8 o'clock section from 8 to 10 a.m.

# Practice Final Exam: pdf

- 05.09.2018
Final Exam on Serialism for 9 o'clock section: 8 to 10 a.m.

# Practice Final Exam: pdf

- 05.09.2018
Final Exam on Serialism for 12 o'clock section: 10:30 to 12:30 p.m.

# Practice Final Exam: pdf